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mechanisms of low level light therapy

What Is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT?

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

A light source (low intensity diode array) is placed in contact with the skin allowing the photon energy to penetrate tissue cells. Light energy absorbed by the cell becomes biochemical energy, thus fuelling tissue repair. Normally-functioning cells are not adversely affected by LLLT.

mechanisms of low level light therapy
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Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT does not heat or cut tissue, unlike high intensity lasers.

Many pharmacological treatments (medications) mask pain or only address the symptoms of the disease. Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT treats the underlying condition or pathology to promote healing, reduce inflammation and give relief for both acute and chronic pain. This means that the treatments are effective and the benefits of Low Level Therapy are long lasting.

L-A-S-E-R is an acronym that stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. In simple terms this refers to light waves of a specific wavelength.

Sun light is a mixture of seven different colours, is disorderly and is not parallel.

Low level laser light is compressed light of a wavelength from the cold, red part of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. It’s different from natural light in that it’s one precise colour, coherent (it travels in a straight line), runs parallel (collimated), monochromatic (a single wavelength) and polarised (it concentrates its beam in a defined location or spot). The healing properties of Laser Light come from these differences.

These properties allow laser light to penetrate the surface of the skin with no heating effect, no damage to the skin and no known side effects. The wavelengths of light actually create physiological changes within the cells of the body, a process called photobiomodulation. Laser light directs biostimulative light energy to the body’s cells, which the cells then convert into chemical energy to promote natural healing and pain relief.

LLLT utilises low powered wavelengths of light in the infra-red and far infrared spectrum which has no effect on normal tissue but is active where there is injury or inflammation.

Red and near-infrared light wavelengths of 600-1070nm penetrate tissue maximally. The technology utilizes superluminous (light emitting) and laser diodes to irradiate diseased or traumatised tissue with photons.

One important way in which Laser Therapy LLLT adds energy is through photon absorption by mitochondria. These tiny organelles which have been called the “powerhouses” of the cell, are found in most plants and animals. Mitochondria are able to absorb laser light which then activates a series of reactions to increase and store more cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

By increasing energy available in this readily accessible form, laser light is able to greatly stimulate the biological function of cells, tissue, and systems and even raise overall vital energy throughout the individual.

“Bio” stimulation = Life stimulation!

When energy is available, the body can heal itself.

Laser Therapy LLLT has been shown to stimulate the regeneration of bone, blood, the lining of blood vessels, cartilage, nerve, muscle and much more. Moreover, it has been documented to enhance the quality of healed tissue. Laser Therapy LLLT may be an ideal treatment. It may not only effectively address many medical conditions but also has been widely reported to improve health and wellbeing as evidenced by a host of biological markers.

The process is curative and therefore results in the elimination of symptoms including pain. In addition, it enhances the body’s immune system response and facilitates natural healing.

LLLT actually improves healing, as well as reducing inflammation and pain.

LLLT is curative because it works at the cellular level rather than modulating symptomatology.

Intracellular biomolecules respond, resulting in the restoration of normal cell function. This stimulates, promotes, enhances and accelerates the healing process.

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

What is History of low level light therapy LLLT?

In 1903, Dr. Nils Finsen was awarded a Nobel Prize for his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation . In 1960, Professor Maiman TH built the first working red ruby laser , but it was not until 1967 when Mester E et al. was able to demonstrate the phenomenon of “laser bio stimulation” . In 1999, Whelan H et al. presented his work on the medical applications of light emitting diodes (LED) for use on the NASA space station . Subsequently over 400 Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have been published, with over 4000 laboratory studies of low level light therapy LLLT. (Pubmed.gov)

A laser is a device that generates light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. There are four main classes of lasers as defined by the International Engineering Consortium (IEC standard 60825.) These classes indicate potential danger the radiation is to the eye.

Class 1/1M – CD player
Class 2/2M – laser pointer
Class 3R/3B – low level light therapy LLLT and CD and DVD writers
Class 4 – Surgical laser

low level light therapy LLLT is the application of light (usually a low powered laser or LED typically power range of (10mW–500mW). Light with a wavelength in the red to near infrared region of the spectrum (660nm–905nm), is generally employed because these wavelengths have the ability to penetrate skin, and soft/hard tissues (Figure 2) and are proven in clinical trials to have a good effect on pain, inflammation and tissue repair. The power density (irradiance) is usually between 5W/cm2 and is applied to an injury or to a painful site for 30–60 seconds a few times a week for several weeks. The result is a reduction of inflammation, pain relief and accelerated tissue regeneration. In most cases the lasers/LEDs used for low level light therapy LLLT emit a divergent beam (not focused or collimated) because collimation is lost in tissue, but as a consequence ocular risks are also diminished over distance.

How Does Laser Therapy LLLT work?

The effects of Laser Therapy LLLT are photochemical(cold), not thermal. During treatment of the tissue with the 635nm laser, an interaction between cells and photons takes place: a photochemical reaction. Photons from the laser affect the tissue at the cellular level. The cold laser enters the tissue, alters cell membrane permeability, and at the cellular level is absorbed in the mitochondria. The mitochondria are the “powerhouse” of cells and make ATP which is needed for the life enhancement process of every cell which facilitates:The effects of Laser Therapy LLLT are photochemical(cold), not thermal. During treatment of the tissue with the 635nm laser, an interaction between cells and photons takes place: a photochemical reaction. Photons from the laser affect the tissue at the cellular level. The cold laser enters the tissue, alters cell membrane permeability, and at the cellular level is absorbed in the mitochondria. The mitochondria are the “powerhouse” of cells and make ATP which is needed for the life enhancement process of every cell which facilitates:

– rapid cell growth. The laser accelerates cellular reproduction and growth.
– faster wound healing. The laser stimulates fibroblast development in the damaged tissue. The reduction in recovery time is an important consideration
– increased metabolic activity. Helps the body increase output of specific enzymes, greater oxygen to blood cells and more effective immune reponse are induced by laser
– reduced fibrous tissue formation. The laser reduces formation of scar tissue following tissue damage from cuts, scratches, burns, or following surgery
– anti-inflammatory action. The laser reduces swelling caused by bruising or inflammtion of joints to give improved joint mobility.
– increased vascular activity. The laser stimulates lymph and blood circulation, to allow the affected tissue to have the best possible circulation
– stimulate nerve function. Slow recovery of nerve function in damaged tissue can result in “dead” limb or numb areas. Laser will speed the process of nerve cell reconnection to bring the numb area back to life. Laser also increases the amplitude of action potentials to optimize muscle action.

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

WHAT Effectiveness of low level light therapy

For many years, doctors and physicians have been utilizing the benefits of low level light therapy on patients seeking alternative and effective methods for pain relief. Over 2500 clinical studies have been published across the globe since 1967. Many of these studies are placebo controlled, double-blinded tests that have confirmed and demonstrated that low level light therapy is a proven method for pain relief.

What is Laser Therapy LLLT and Application range

About Laser Therapy LLLT-A huge amount of research data has been collected on the effects of Laser Therapy LLLT both in laboratory and clinical settings. The most significant results include:

Wound healing is significantly improved by Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT (LLLT), even in non-healing wounds, thought to be due to the increased level of collagen brought about by laser treatment. Collagen, the chief constituent of connective tissue, is recognized as the most important ingredient in wound healing.
Increases in blood flow by means of capillary and arterial widening of the lumen of blood vessels, vasodilatation.
Marked improvement in re-establishment of the lymphatic system after trauma, resulting in reduction of swelling. This is due to the evacuation of dirty proteins by the regenerated lymphatic vessels.
Laser light stimulates release of the body’s own pain killing chemicals such as endorphins and enkephalins, facilitating natural, long lasting pain relief

What is low level Laser Therapy LLLT Contraindications?

Cold Laser Therapy LLLT should not be used over any suspicious cancerous lesions, or carcinoma, over the thyroid, on pregnant patients, and there should not be direct irradiation of the eyes, as the laser can cause permanent damage to the eyes.

Pregnant women are recommended not to undergo the procedure, since its effects on unborn children are not yet known. The doctor and the patient should use protective eyeglasses so that there is no direct eye exposure.

mechanisms of low level light therapy

mechanisms of low level light therapy

does low level laser therapy work

does low level laser therapy work

does low level laser therapy work

does low level laser therapy work

does low level laser therapy work

does low level laser therapy work

mechanisms of low level light therapy

The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In particular a biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect than higher levels. This introductory review will cover some of the proposed cellular chromophores responsible for the effect of visible light on mammalian cells, including cytochrome c oxidase (with absorption peaks in the near infrared) and photoactive porphyrins. Mitochondria are thought to be a likely site for the initial effects of light, leading to increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species and induction of transcription factors. These effects in turn lead to increased cell proliferation and migration (particularly by fibroblasts), modulation in levels of cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and increased tissue oxygenation. The results of these biochemical and cellular changes in animals and patients include such benefits as increased healing in chronic wounds, improvements in sports injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, pain reduction in arthritis and neuropathies, and amelioration of damage after heart attacks, stroke, nerve injury and retinal toxicity.

 


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